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Defining Lesbian Sex

This is a dissertation by Michele O'Mara, PhD on the topic of Sexual Frequency and Relationship Satisfaction Among Lesbians.  Tap here to read the entire dissertation in a pdf format.

CHAPTER FOUR

DEFINING LESBIAN SEX

“I did not have sexual relations with that woman,” is a well-known phrase coined by former president Bill Clinton when he was accused of having sex with his intern, Monica Lewinsky. The American people eventually learned that his denial of sex was based on the fact that it was a cigar, not his penis, which he inserted in Miss Lewinsky’s vagina. Apparently, defining sex between a man and a woman is no easy task. Defining lesbian sex is more complicated. Logic suggests that it is best explained by those having it, therefore the research participants in this study were asked to identify what they consider to be sex. This chapter provides an overview of select publications that influenced the definition of lesbian sex in the last half century, and establishes the definition of lesbian sex according to the participants who took this survey.

Influential Books About Lesbian Sex

Books that have been published over the last sixty years provide a glimpse at how lesbian sex was initially defined, and how it has evolved over time. Some of the books that influenced the definition of sex are publications of large scale research, such as Kinsey’s famous studies. Some of the books are how-to books that provide instruction for a woman seeking to have sex with another woman. Other books that have influenced the definition of lesbian sex approach the topic from a place of self-help, and emphasize sexual problems among lesbians. One of the books is a lesbian sex photo book by an artist who has greatly influenced the definition of sex through her illustrations.

The most influential book among these books is Sexual Behavior in The Human Female by Alfred Kinsey. This is the first serious inquiry into lesbian sexual behavior on a large scale basis, and was published in 1953. Kinsey’s research is described as a fifteen-year study that “has been a fact-finding survey in which an attempt has been made to discover what people do sexually” (Kinsey 1953, 3). The majority of the research in his book is based on the case studies of 5,940 white females. Chapter eleven is titled “Homosexual Responses and Contacts,” and it offers an objective presentation of the facts as gathered from extensive, in-depth interviews of women about their sexual behavior. This resource is not a useful how-to book, or one that a curious lesbian would likely turn to as a resource for greater understanding about her own sexuality. It is an 842 page academic report that covers, in detail, a fifteen yearlong study of women’s sexuality.

In addition to establishing that lesbians do have sex, Kinsey presents a non-pathologizing perspective on lesbian sexual behaviors, particularly for a period of time that was not accepting of same-sex relationships. Kinsey provides affirming observations about same-sex activity, as he asserts that “Homosexual contacts between females have been observed in such widely separated species as rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, porcupines, marten, cattle, antelope, goats, horses, pigs, lions, sheep, monkeys and chimpanzees” (Kinsey 1953, 449).

Kinsey further validates the experience of lesbian sex by pointing out that “Psychologists and psychiatrists, reflecting the mores of the culture in which they have been raised, have spent a good deal of time trying to explain the origins of homosexual activity; but considering the physiology of sexual response and the mammalian backgrounds of human behavior, it is not so difficult to explain why a human animal does a particular thing sexually. It is more difficult to explain why each and every individual is not involved in every type of sexual activity” (1953, 451).

In 1975, the first self-published lesbian sex guide by and for lesbians was produced by the Nomadic Sisters. The book is forty-five pages, includes illustrations, how-to information, and it is titled Loving Women. This book was the first lesbian sex guide published in the United States and it is not surprising that it coincided with a time when the feminist movement was gaining momentum. This era was marked by the actions of courageous women who were willing to take greater risks to further the social acceptance of lesbians. The Nomadic Sisters were on the cutting edge in 1975, and with this publication, they successfully paved a new path for other authors to begin publishing about lesbian sex.

Jochild explains that there were hundreds of publications during this era thanks to newly-developed offset presses. The offset presses were a more affordable printing option, and gave lesbians access to printing without censorship from the male dominated presses. This, in turn, provided lesbian consumers greater access to books and journals. Many of these publications were personally handed from one woman to the next, creating unprecedented outreach of these written words (2008).

In the next relevant, large-scale study published, Shere Hite reveals the results of original research she conducted in the early 70s on the self-report of 3,019 women who completed her questionnaire on female sexuality. The results were published in Hite’s book called The Hite Report on Female Sexuality in 1976. Hite’s research was instrumental in changing cultural attitudes about women’s sexuality in general, and her book has had popular appeal with “more than 48 million copies sold worldwide,” according to the cover of her 2004 edition. In Hite’s updated version of the book, she states in her introduction that this report “was the first to state the case for a fundamental redefinition of sex, based on equality” (2004, 11).

Though lesbians were simply one of many voices represented in this survey, Hite dedicated an entire section to the topic of lesbianism, which spanned twenty-one pages. More important is Hite’s perspective on homosexual behavior, which is clearly stated as “Homosexuality, or the desire to be physically intimate with someone of one’s own sex at some time, or always, during one’s life, can be considered a natural and ‘normal’ variety of life experience. It is ‘abnormal’ only when you posit as ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ only an interest in reproductive sex. Discussions of why one becomes heterosexual would come to the same non-conclusions. To consider all non-reproductive sexual contact ‘an error of nature’ is a very narrow view” (2004, 313).

The Joy of Lesbian Sex by authors Bertha Harris and Emily Sisley was published in 1977. Ground breaking for its time, this how-to guide for lesbian sex included graphic illustrations of and instruction for lesbian sex. The Joy of Lesbian Sex placed a strong emphasis on the achievement of orgasm. This book is no longer in print, and cannot be easily accessed by women in search of a useful sex manual.

In 1980 a book titled Sapphistry : The Book of Lesbian Sexuality by Pat Califia was published. This marks the inception of the lesbian self-help sex book. With chapters titled The Erotic Imagination, Self-Loving, Partners, Communication, Common Sexual Concerns, Youth, Age and Sex, Disabled Lesbians, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and more, this book covers a lot of ground. The author states, “Nobody assumes you should ‘intuitively’ know how to cook or ‘automatically’ know how to build a shelter. Sex is the only skill we are expected to possess without receiving any instruction” (Califia 1993, 45). Rather than giving readers instruction, Califia provides a general overview of a variety of issues, including specific sexual behaviors.

The first edition of Califia’s book contained artwork by Tee Corinne, a lesbian artist who is credited with being “interested in loving, beautiful, sexy images” (Wilton 2002, 1). Corinne explains about her photos, “I also want the images to be a turn on, create an adrenaline high, a rush of desire so intense that the act of looking is sexual” (Wilton 2002, 1). Corinne also illustrated the first book of lesbian erotic photographs ever published in Yantras of Womanlove (1982).

Tee Corinne was considered one of the most visible and accessible lesbian artists in the world, according to the Completely Queer: The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia. The website 5magzxine.wordpress.com refers to her as the “shy superstar of erotica.” Through art, not words, Corrine made a significant contribution to the emerging understanding of lesbian sex by giving lesbians a visual language that celebrates lesbian sexuality.

The 80s served as a pivotal turning point for lesbians, affecting how their sex lives are viewed both publicly and privately. This cultural shift in perception of lesbian sexuality was based on the work of Phillip Blumstein and Pepper Schwartz, who co-authored an extensive, large-scale study of four types of couple dyads: heterosexual married couples, heterosexual cohabitating couples, gay male couples, and lesbian couples. Their research was initiated in 1975, and involved the analysis of thousands of questionnaires collected from men and women. They also selected 300 couples for intensive interviewing, of which ninety were lesbian couples.

This research reported that lesbians are the least sexually active of the four couple dyads, and that lesbians experience the greatest decline in sexual activity over the course of their relationships. From this research came the cultural stigma of “lesbian bed death,” a phrase used to describe the low frequency of sexual activity between women. This is a concept that will be expanded upon further in later chapters.

Another well known book of lesbian import was written during the 80’s by Joann Loulan. Her book, Lesbian Sex, is a great primer on the topic of lesbian sexuality and intimacy, and it functions as a useful reference book for lesbians seeking understanding for a variety of sexual concerns. Only one chapter in her book is dedicated to the actual sexual activities between women, and is titled “What We Do in Bed.” This fourteen page chapter highlights the sexual behaviors in which lesbians engage without going into much detail about any one of the behaviors.

Loulan’s book reads like a trouble-shooting sex manual for lesbians, and is classified by this researcher as self-help. If a lesbian is non-orgasmic, struggling with coming out, concerned about aging, addiction, or losing desire, there are chapters included to address these and other concerns. Loulan includes numerous exercises to help women relax, increase their enjoyment, and address specific concerns such as vaginismus.

By the 90s the AIDS epidemic was in full-swing, casting a sobering effect on how people think about sex in general. This seems to have stinted the development of lesbian sex books during the 90’s, as there were only two noteworthy books on lesbian sex published during this decade. Wendy Caster published The Lesbian Sex Book in 1993 which, unlike some of the earlier sex books, was later updated in 2004 and is still in print. It reads very much like a reference book, and is alphabetically arranged by topics ranging from “afterplay” to “weight” with a wide variety of topics in between.

In 1997, Jeannie Shaw and Virginia Erhardt published a self-help book designed to help couples deepen their sexual connection through various guided exercises, including an assessment of their sexual attitudes, comfort zones, and other topics that allow couples to begin repairing their sexual connection. In 1998, the same book titled Journey Toward Intimacy: A Handbook for Lesbian Couples came out under the sole name of Jeannie Shaw.

The turn of the century brought new and more graphic attention to sexual behaviors between women. In 2004, Felice Newman published The Whole Lesbian Sex Book: A Passionate Guide for All of Us, and Diana Cage edited a book titled On Our Backs Guide to Lesbian Sex. These books are focused specifically on the physical component of sexual relationships, and they are inclusive of sexual behaviors that were not considered acceptable in earlier publications. For example, chapter five in Cage’s book is titled “Dyke Dick: Strapping, Packing, Sucking, Fucking” (2004). This is in contrast to Califia’s comment in the 1980’s that “Dildos are probably the most taboo sex toys a lesbian could consider using. Relatively few lesbians have even seen a dildo” (Califia 1988, 51).

Women Loving Women: Appreciating and Exploring the Beauty of Erotic Female Encounters by Jamye Waxman is another lesbian sex book with how-to visuals that came out in 2007. Though it appears at first glance to be a photo book, it does offer suggestions and strategies for women loving women. The author includes heterosexual women in her audience, as well. Three women are photographed in various sexual situations. Sometimes two women are pictured at a time, and sometimes all three. Though the women are nude throughout most of the book, the photos do not include graphic genital exposure. This book offers a sensual journey through the erotic exploration of loving women, and balances art with instruction. This is a book that would be of help to a novice lesbian seeking guidance for the topic of lesbian sex.

Lesbian Sex: 101 Lovemaking Positions is another lesbian-specific sex book. It was published in 2008 by Jude Schell, and its title explains well what you can expect to find in this resource. It is a photo book which offers a pictorial and written explanation for the various lovemaking positions. Interestingly, if you search “lesbian sex positions” on amazon.com, the largest current online bookseller, the results list shows eighty-six titles, though most of them are unrelated to the actual topic of lesbian sex positions. It appears that only two of the books listed include various lesbian sex positions. If you do the same search for simply “sex positions” without including the word “lesbian,” there are 7, 149 titles returned. When it comes to a query for titles on “lesbian erotica,” however, close to 5,000 options are available. This suggests to this researcher that the market for lesbian erotica is greater than the market for concrete information about lesbian sex. What is unclear, however, is whether or not the audience for this erotica is primarily men, heterosexual women, lesbians, or a combination of all of three.

In 2010, Dr. Glenda Corwin wrote Sexual Intimacy for Women: A Guide for Same-Sex Couples. As stated on the back cover, this book helps “female couples examine the emotional, physical, and psychological aspects of their relationships with the goal of creating more intimacy” (Corwin 2010). Like Loulan, Corwin is a therapist, and her book serves to similarly offer solutions and new perspectives on commonly cited issues such as desire discrepancy, body image and weight concerns, sexual abuse and trauma histories, the impact of age and hormonal changes, issues with fidelity, and the pressures of parenthood.

Sexual intimacy for women is broken into three sections. A quick page count of the three different sections reveals that six percent of the book is related to “just the facts: women, sex, and desire” (Corwin 2010, 6). Forty-three percent of the book involves discussion of “common stumbling blocks to intimacy” (43). Twenty-four percent of the book is dedicated to “secrets to longlasting intimacy” (169). It is interesting to note the disproportionate emphasis on obstacles and issues when it comes to lesbian sex in this and other self-help lesbian sex books such as those of Loulan (1984), Califia (1988), and Shaw (1998).

Most recently, Jude Schell published a third book on lesbian sex titled Her Sweet Spot. This sex guide was published in 2011, and is designed to help lovers explore one another sexually with particular attention to the senses. The author encourages and guides the reader to actively engage in a whole-body exploration of the senses in search of her partner’s erogenous zones. This is meant to help lesbian partners achieve greater pleasure and understanding in matters of sex.

In summary, there are very few written resources that support lesbians’ understanding of lesbian sexuality. While there are numerous books on lesbian erotica, and a growing catalogue of videos that include lesbian-themed sexual relationships, the availability of practical, useful, and non-sensationalized, or dramatized information about lesbian sex did not begin to gain momentum until the turn of the century.

An accounting of books that influenced the definition of lesbian sex underscores the paucity of information that is available to lesbians about sex. It stands to reason that a definition for lesbian sex would be equally lacking, and that lesbians may not share the same definition of lesbian sex. Despite the slight increase in attention given to lesbian sex in the last ten years, as of yet there has been no unified, contemporary definition put forth to describe lesbian sex. Perhaps it is not necessary or beneficial to define lesbian sex. Heterosexuals have suffered from an overly restrictive vision of sex, namely that sex must involve penile penetration of the vagina while assuming missionary position. This narrow definition of sex has led a significant population of heterosexuals to lament the lack of diversity in their sex lives. For the purposes of this study, developing a definition of lesbian sex is necessary in order to understand what women are reporting when they answer questions that refer to sex.

Defining Lesbian Sex

As Califia points out in Saphistry, “sex is a learned process, not something that just comes naturally” (1988, ix). It makes sense that the generation in which a lesbian is born may influence how she defines sex. The changing definition of lesbian sex is demonstrated by an evolution of how the topic has been addressed in books throughout the years. According to Kinsey, the “Techniques in Homosexual Contacts” as he referred to lesbian sex, “often depended on little more than simple lip kissing and generalized body contacts” (1953, 466).

 

 

 

Table  4.  List of Books about Lesbian Sex

1st Edition (Latest Edition)

Title

Author

Type

1953 Sexual Behavior in the Human Female Alfred Kinsey

Research

1972 Loving Women Nomadic Sisters

Sex Guide

1976 The Joy of Lesbian Sex Bertha Harris and Emily Sisley

Sex Guide

1976 (2004) The Hite Report on Female Sexuality Shere Hite

Research

1980 (1988) Sapphistry : The Book of Lesbian Sexuality Pat Califa

Self-Help

1982 Yantras of Womanlove Tee Corinne

Photobook

1983 American Couples Phillip Blumstein and Pepper Schwartz

Research

1984 Lesbian Sex Joann Loulan

Self-Help

1993 (2003) The Lesbian Sex Book Wendy Caster

Sex Guide

1997 (1998) Journey Toward Intimacy: A Handbook for Lesbian Couples Virginia Erhardt Ph.D. and
(Jeanne Shaw only author in 1998)

Self-Help

2002 Lesbian Sex Tips:  A Guide for Anyone Who Wants to Bring Pleasure to the Woman She (or He) Loves Tracey Stevens / Katherine Wunder

Sex Guide

2003 True Secrets of Lesbian Desire:  Keeping Sex Alive in Long-Term Relationships Renate Stendhal

Self-Help

2004 Tantric Sex for Women:  A Guide for Lesbian,
Bi, Hetero, and Solo Lovers
Christa Schulte

Sex Guide

2004 The Whole Lesbian Sex Book:  A Passionate Guide for All of Us Felice Newman

Sex Guide

2004 On Our Backs Guide to Lesbian Sex Diana Cage, Editor

Sex Guide

2005 (2008) Lesbian Sex:  101 Lovemaking Positions Jude Schell

Sex Guide

2007 Women Loving Women:  Appreciating and Exploring the Beauty of Erotic Female Encounters Jamye Waxman

Sex Guide

2010 Sexual Intimacy for Women: A Guide for
Same-Sex Couples
Glenda Corwin

Self-Help

2011 Her Sweet Spot Jude Schell

Sex Guide

 

 

 

In their book Lesbian Women, Martin and Lyon state, “The three most common techniques used in lesbian lovemaking are mutual masturbation, cunnilingus and tribadism” (1972, 54). They also provide a general description of what these behaviors include. For example, mutual masturbation is described by them as “manipulation of the clitoris, caressing the labia, and/or penetration of the vagina by the fingers until sexual excitation or orgasm occurs” (Martin and Lyon 1972, 54). Consistent with much of the writing about sex during this generation, there is an emphasis on orgasm as the end goal.

As the voice of lesbian sex for the 80s, JoAnn Loulan states that “lesbian sex is anything two lesbians do together” (1984, 47). Loulan shares the belief that lesbians tended to limit their definitions of sex to finger-vagina, or tongue-clitoris, interaction and then it only qualifies if accompanied by an orgasm. She suggests that lesbian sex has been too narrowly defined, and that behaviors as simple as hugging, kissing, caressing, holding hands, or putting our arms around each other can also be very sexual (1984).

In 2010, The Kinsey Institute conducted a study to determine how 204 male and 282 female adults conceptualize having “had sex.” What they discovered is that forty-five percent of their sample classified manual-genital stimulation (finger sex) to be having sex. They also discovered that seventy-one percent of their sample considered oral sex to be sex. Lastly, eighty percent of their sample confirmed that anal-genital intercourse is included in their definition of sex (Sanders et al, 2010). There was no distinction made for the sexual orientation of their survey respondents.

For the purposes of this research, it has been important to establish how the survey respondents define sex in order to establish a shared language about what is being discussed when the concept, word, or behavior called “lesbian sex” is mentioned throughout this paper. A review of survey responses to question number one will provide the necessary insight about how contemporary lesbians define sex.

Question one on the survey is “I believe I am having lesbian sex if I engage in the following behaviors with another woman…” followed by a series of sexual activities from which to choose. The survey participants were allowed to check all of the following options they considered to be sex: hugging/kissing, sensual body massage (non-genital), humping/ tribadism (moving your body against hers, with or without clothes on, for sexual pleasure), breast stimulation, vaginal penetration (finger, fist, dildo, vibrator, etc.), clitoral stimulation, oral sex, anal sex, S/M or bondage, only activities which result in an orgasm, and any activity that produces sexual pleasure, with or without orgasm.

Based on the survey results of this study, eighty-five percent or more of all lesbians surveyed believe lesbian sex includes one of the following: oral sex, vaginal penetration, or clitoral stimulation. An orgasm is not necessary for the majority of respondents to qualify a behavior as sex. Only eleven percent of survey participants indicate that it is necessary to have an orgasm for a behavior to be considered sex.

When the age of survey participants (Table 5) is compared to how they define sex, the results are very similar. Eighty-percent or more of all ages represented in the survey believe oral, vaginal, or clitoral stimulation is lesbian sex. This is also true when the length of relationship (Table 6) is compared to how they define sex. Therefore, age and length of relationship do not materially affect how lesbians define the top three behaviors considered to be sex.

There is a slight gap between the perceptions of younger survey participants (ages 18-20) and older participants (over 60) about clitoral stimulation. Only eighty percent of the younger participants perceive clitoral stimulation to be sex and 100% of the women over sixty perceive it as sex. This supports the idea that the definition of lesbian sex is influenced by the generation in which a lesbian is born. The small sample size for these age groups may affect the validity of these findings. There are only seven lesbians in the survey who are eighteen to twenty, and only eighteen lesbians who are over sixty years old.

There is a similar gap in perceptions of lesbian sex among women with varying lengths of relationship. Ninety-four percent of women who have been in their relationship eleven months or less, as well as those in their relationships twenty-one or more years, believe vaginal penetration is sex. Only eighty-percent of women who have been partnered between eleven and twenty years consider vaginal penetration to be lesbian sex. Though these are not wide margins of difference, they do provide insight about how age and length of relationship may have a subtle influence on perceptions of sex.

Sixty to sixty-five percent of women taking the survey also expanded the definition of lesbian sex to include anything that produces sexual pleasure, humping (also known as tribadism), and anal sex. In the 70s, tribadism was one of the top three sexual behaviors of lesbians as noted by authors Martin and Lyon (1972). Today only sixty-one percent of lesbians consider this to be sex.

There seems to have been a dramatic change in the last few decades in how lesbians perceive sex. In 1987, Loulan’s research on this topic concluded that over ninety percent of lesbians in her sample included hugging, cuddling, and kissing as sexual activities (1987). Today only twenty-one percent of survey respondents in this research consider kissing and hugging to be sex. This change can be observed by the differences in responses by younger survey participants and older survey participants. None of the women aged eighteen to twenty perceive breast stimulation, sensual massage, or hugging and kissing to be sex. Forty-four percent of women over sixty consider both sensual massage and hugging and kissing to be sex. Sixty-seven percent of women over sixty consider breast stimulation to be sex.

A look at how lesbians view breast stimulation (Table 9) offers a good perspective on how age impacts the definition of sex. As mentioned above, none of the seven women aged eighteen to twenty years old consider breast stimulation to be sex. Increasing the age range by one decade at a time significantly increases the percentage of women who consider breast stimulation to be sex. For example, twenty-three percent of twenty-one to thirty year olds believe breast stimulation is sex. Sixty-seven percent of women over sixty believe that breast stimulation is sex. This is a sixty-seven percent increase in the definition of breast stimulation as sex between the eighteen year old respondents and the over sixty year old respondents. The older the lesbian, the more comprehensive her definition of sex, with the exception of anal stimulation and SM/bondage. The number of older women in the survey who consider anal sex and SM/bondage to be sex drops significantly.

In summary, lesbian sex for the purposes of this research is primarily considered to be one of three behaviors between women: oral sex, vaginal penetration, or clitoral stimulation. The older the respondent is, the more likely she is to include non-genitally focused activities in her definition of sex, and the younger the respondent is, the more likely she is to include anal stimulation in her definition of sex. The majority of lesbians of every age also agree that an orgasm is not a requirement when defining lesbian sex.

With a better understanding of the historical and current definition of lesbian sex by lesbians, it is time to look at the sexual behaviors in which lesbians are currently participating. Included in the next chapter are the following topics: an exploration of the regularly used sexual techniques of lesbians, a closer look at masturbation among lesbians, the frequency and quantity of orgasms, the time spent engaged in sexual encounters between women, and the frequency with which lesbians are engaging in sex outside of their relationship.

 

Figure 1.  Defining Lesbian Sex

 

 

 

Table 5.  Lesbian Sex Defined According to Age of Lesbian

Activities Considered Sex

18-20

n=7

21-30

n=56

31-40

n=131

41-50

n=182

51-60

n=77

Over 60

n=18

Average Perceptions of Lesbian Sex

Oral stimulation

100%

89%

88%

91%

87%

94%

92%

Vaginal penetration

86%

89%

89%

91%

86%

94%

89%

Clitoral stimulation

86%

80%

82%

89%

86%

100%

87%

Anal stimulation

86%

57%

61%

63%

57%

44%

61%

Tribadism / humping

57%

54%

60%

65%

62%

67%

61%

Causes sexual pleasure

29%

63%

60%

69%

74%

61%

59%

Breast stimulation

0%

23%

31%

52%

64%

67%

40%

S/M

43%

29%

26%

30%

34%

11%

29%

Massage

0%

9%

14%

23%

34%

44%

21%

Hug or kiss

0%

7%

15%

22%

36%

44%

21%

Ends in orgasm

0%

20%

11%

9%

10%

6%

9%

 

Percentage within age group that considers this activity to be sex

n=number of women responding to question per age group

 

 

 Length of Relationship

Vaginal Penetration

Oral Stimulation

Clitoris Stimulation

Tribadism/
Humping

Produces Sexual Pleasure

Anal Sex

Breast Stimulation

Hug/Kiss

Massage

S/M or Bondage

Ends in Orgasm

Less than 6 months (n=47)

94%

92%

94%

72%

66%

57%

49%

23%

30%

23%

9%

6 to 11 months (n=51)

94%

92%

90%

73%

65%

65%

55%

20%

22%

29%

8%

1 to 2 years (n=89)

89%

90%

82%

52%

72%

64%

36%

17%

16%

32%

7%

3 to 5 years (n=126)

87%

87%

83%

56%

60%

60%

37%

14%

18%

31%

15%

6 to 10 years (n=97)

91%

91%

91%

63%

62%

61%

47%

22%

21%

22%

10%

11 to 20 years (n=61)

80%

85%

75%

64%

79%

51%

51%

31%

30%

30%

13%

21 or more years (n=18)

94%

94%

100%

67%

61%

61%

56%

44%

33%

22%

6%

Average perceptions of lesbian sex

90%

90%

88%

64%

66%

60%

47%

24%

24%

27%

10%

 

Percentage of women who perceive these activities to be sex

Read Chapter Three

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